MiSTer FPGA Guide

A Beginner's Complete Guide

MiSTer-kun Cat Mascot
2024-04-09 Corrected comparisons
2024-02-09 Clarified INI syntax
2024-02-09 Updated gamma info

Introduction - What is the MiSTer?

I. MiSTer FPGA | II. Alternatives to MiSTer

MiSTer is hardware emulation of arcade machines like Galaga and Ms. Pac-Man, consoles such as NES and SNES, and computers like the Commodore 64 and Amiga.

MiSTer uses thousands of physical gates in a so-called field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to emulate the original circuitry.

MiSTer offers lower latency and more authentic graphics and sound than software emulation.

New games or systems, so-called cores, are released every month for the MiSTer by dedicated and mostly hobbyist developers.

II. Alternatives to MiSTer

MAME, RetroArch, Hyperspin, and RetroPie benefit from save states and extensive game libraries, but fall short in delivering authenticity and low latency.

My expensive MAME/Hyperspin machine is now collecting dust. I can't go back to software emulation after MiSTer.

I own original Commodore 64, Amiga, SNES and N64s. They offer authenticity, but using and maintaining 40-year-old machines is cumbersome.

Meta guide - About this guide

I. Buyer's guide | II. Basic installation and setup | III. Configuration | IV. Video settings | V. Arcade core setup checklist | VI. Unique systems | VII. Addendum

The guide is split into seven, color-coded parts. Follow them chronologically to get the most out of the guide.

Buyer's guide

Recommendations for your MiSTer setup (chapters 1 - 11)

Basic installation and setup

Getting your MiSTer up and running (chapters 12 - 17)


Tweaking the INI file (chapters 18 - 19)

Video settings

Scaling, aspect ratios, and video processing (chapters 20 - 21)

Arcade core setup checklist

An easy reminder list (chapter 22)

Unique systems

C64, AmigaVision, and AO486 [PC] (chapters 23 - 25)


Display calibration
Mr. RePlay

Let's begin with some tips to help you get the right gear!

Chapter 1 - Where to buy your MiSTer

I. DIY or prebuilt | II. MiSTer webshops
I. DIY or prebuilt

You can build a MiSTer yourself or you can purchase a prebuilt MiSTer. This guide focuses on the latter.

All MiSTers use a Terasic DE10-Nano board, but there are differences when it comes to expansion boards, inputs and outputs, the case, and the cooling method.

Terasic DE-10 Nano

Terasic DE10-Nano FPGA board

II. MiSTer webshops

In the US, and for world-wide exclusive products, I recommend MiSTer Addons, run by Porkchop Express.

In Europe I recommend Ultimate MiSTer, run by Ricardo Saraiva out of Portugal.

Good communications and service. Full setups from around €500 excluding VAT.

For parts and accessories in the UK, I recommend MiSTer FPGA run by Nat.

In the EU, trade barriers impose toll, VAT, and handling fees when importing from the US / UK.

Chapter 2 - Base MiSTer models

I. Base MiSTer comparison table | II. Cooling method | III. Single or dual RAM
I. Base MiSTer FPGA comparison table
Feature Ultimate MiSTer PRO MiSTer Addons Bundle Analog I/O Ultimate MiSTer PRO DUAL RAM MiSTer Addons Bundle Digital I/O
RAM (MB) 1 x 128 1 x 128 2 x 128 2 x 128
Analog sound out - -
Digital sound out
Audio/tape in
Built-in VGA out - -
HDMI out
USB ports 7 7 7 7
Cooling Fan Heatsink Fan Heatsink
Power button - -
II. Cooling method

The main difference between the Ultimate MiSTer and MiSTer Addons prebuilt machines is the cooling method:

"You eliminate fan noise and dust intake with a heatsink. The MiSTer won't run dangerously hot."

MiSTer Addons

"Active cooling may stabilize timing with some cores and increase component lifespan."

Ultimate MiSTer

I've got an Ultimate MiSTer (no dual RAM) with a Noctua fan. Noise is low, dust intake is minor.

Ultimate MiSTer Pro

Ultimate MiSTer Pro with active cooling

III. Single or dual RAM

Dual RAM doesn't double the total amount of RAM, instead it increases the bandwidth when moving large chunks of memory.

Extremely few cores benefit from or require dual RAM.

Dual RAM requires the digital I/O card, which lacks analog sound out and built-in VGA output.

If you don't need or mind this, then dual RAM is more future proof.

Chapter 3 - MiSTer upgrades

I. Basic upgrades | II. Real Time Clock
I. Basic upgrades

For Ultimate MiSTer PRO models I recommend upgrading the following:

  • Stock fan ⇢ Noctua Premium Fan for silent cooling.
  • Stock 2A PSU ⇢ Mean Well 5A PSU for more stable power supply.
For MiSTer Addons models I recommend upgrading the following:
  • Stock PSU ⇢ Worldwide 5A PSU. Outside of the US you'll need to supply your own mains cable.
II. Real Time Clock

The optional RTC lets cores such as the Amiga, C64 (GEOS), and AO486 PC always keep time.

Files written to the SD card are always correctly time stamped, and startup time is reduced when there's no Internet.

Ultimate MiSTer installs the RTC for you. With MiSTer Addons you'll need to install it yourself.

Chapter 4 - microSD cards

I. Size and speed class | II. Usage example
I. Size and speed class

The operating system (OS), cores, games, and various user data is stored on a microSD card.

With prebuilt MiSTers, the card comes pre-installed with the essentials.

I recommend SanDisk Ultra, speed class 10/U1 or higher.

GB Size fits
8-16 OS, cores, and scripts
128 Enough for most essential arcade, console, and retro computer games
256 As an alternative to a USB stick or network-attached storage (NAS)
512 As an alternative to a USB stick or NAS
II. Usage example

My card contains:

  • OS, cores, scripts, music
  • 300 DOS games
  • 800 arcade and Neo-Geo games
  • 800 C64 and VIC-20 games
  • 1,100 Mega Drive, NES, and SNES games
  • 2,000 Amiga games

This takes up 160 GB in total.

Add a USB flash drive for larger collections. Add a NAS for CD-ROM games (e.g. PlayStation).

Chapter 5 - USB game controllers

I. Arcade sticks, gamepads, and joysticks | II. Controller latency table
I. Arcade sticks, gamepads, and joysticks

An arcade style controller is a must for arcade games.

It's also essential for fighting games, which often require six to eight buttons.

For console games, an 8Bitdo gamepad is a good choice.

Another option for consoles and home computers is to use original peripherals with an adapter.

Hori Real Arcade Pro 4 Kai

Hori Real Arcade Pro 4 Kai controller

II. Controller latency table

Look for controllers with ≤5 ms of latency in this sheet:

MiSTer Controller Latency Comparison

Here are some examples (ms):


Qanba Obsidian controller


Hori RAP4 Kai controller


8BitDo Arcade Stick


Logitech Dual Action gamepad

Chapter 6 - Adapters for original controllers

I. Adapter comparison table | II. Reflex Adapt | III. SNAC/SNAX
I. Adapter comparison table
Feature Reflex Adapt DaemonBite SNAC/SNAX BlisSTer
Connection USB USB User Port Board install
Added lag (ms) <~1 <~1 0 <~1
General support (✓) -
Standard cores
Works in menu -
Cross core compatible -
Multiple controllers (✓)
Standard voltage -
Input checker display - - -
PSX rumble -
N64 rumble -
Lightguns G-Con 1 - NES Zapper
Paddles Jogcon - (✓)
II. Reflex Adapt

The Reflex Adapt from MiSTer Addons is the most flexible adapter. New controllers and features are continually supported via the Update All script (more on Update All later).

Each original controller requires its own adapter cable, such as the DB9 (joystick) to HDMI (Reflex Adapt) shown below.

MiSTer Addons Reflex Adapt

Reflex Adapt with The Arcade joystick from 1987


SNAC or SNAX, the latter an updated PlayStation accessories version, is the fastest adapter.

It interacts directly with the FPGA board, without going through USB first.

As the comparison table shows, there are pros and cons to all adapters.

In practice, the latency differences here are negligible, while compatibility and functionality are more important.

Chapter 7 - Keyboard and mouse

I. Keyboard | II. Mouse
I. Keyboard

MiSTer uses a lightweight distribution of Linux that defaults to US PC keyboard layout. This affects special characters with non-US and Mac keyboards.

I use a cheap Dell KB216 US International keyboard for my MiSTer.

After initial setup, you can remote edit files from your PC/Mac, or you can add the keyboard layout in Linux, if you're proficient in the terminal.

Keymaps for menus and games can easily be re-mapped from the MiSTer menu's system settings.

II. Mouse

Cores like the Commodore Amiga and the AO486 PC require a mouse. It's also an alternative to spinners/paddles in arcade games like Arkanoid.

Most wired mice and wireless mice with a dongle will work. I use a Logictech M-series mouse with a dongle.

The dongle is usually placed in the MiSTer's front-facing USB port.

Chapter 8 - Sound systems

I. Analog sound output | II. Digital sound output
I. Analog sound output

MiSTers with the analog I/O board feature a 3.5 mm analog audio output ("mini-jack") for connecting PC speakers.

  • +Works with most PC speakers
  • +No risk of synchronization issues
  • -Slightly more noisy

More later on how to adjust gain staging to avoid distortion.

Logitech Z407 is a cost-effective solution for deep and powerful game sound.

It consists of two speakers (20 cm), a mini subwoofer (24 cm), and a remote for volume adjustment.

Logitech Z407 2.1 sound system

Logitech Z407 2.1 sound system

II. Digital sound output

The analog I/O board can also output digital sound from the same output via Mini TOSLink.

The digital I/O board only outputs digital sound, either Mini TOSLink or TOSLink.

The receiving end must synchronize to 48 kHz to avoid a sample rate mismatch.

  • +Cleaner sound from external DAC
  • -Higher risk of dropouts or clicks
  • -Not compatible with most PC speakers

Chapter 9 - CRT monitors and TVs

I. More about CRTs | II. Pros and cons of CRT
I. More about CRTs

For now, this guide only covers digital displays. More about connecting a CRT to your MiSTer in the official documentation.

Sony PVM 20L5

Sony PVM 20L5 20" CRT monitor

II. Prons and cons of CRT

  • +The authentic way of displaying retro games
  • +Perfect aspect ratio
  • +Smooth movement and natural scanlines
  • -Can't easily be pivoted for vertical games
  • -Good monitors are expensive and fragile
  • -Takes up more desk space
  • -Setup and tweaking can be tricky

Chapter 10 - Digital displays for MiSTer

I. Digital display comparison table | II. Advantages of WUXGA | III. Pixel repetition | IV. Display pivoting | V. Vertical refresh rate
I. Digital display comparison table
Resolution 1920 x 1200 1920 x 1080 2560 x 1440 3840 x 2160 2560 x 1600 1600 x 1200 1024 x 768
Also known as 1080p 1440p 4K
Aspect ratio 16:10 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:10 4:3 4:3
Black borders Medium Large Large Large Large None / small None / small
Inches 24.1" 23.8" 27" ≥42" 27" 20.1" 15"
Panel quality Good Good Good Very good Good Medium Low
HDMI without adapter - -
VRR (✓) (✓) (✓) (✓) (✓) - -
Can pivot (✓) (✓) (✓) - (✓) (✓) (✓)
Avoids pixel repetition - - -
Sharp, no crop 5x scaling - - - - -
Mr. RePlay score (1-10) 9 6 5 5 5 4 3
II. Advantages of WUXGA

1080p is a popular format with PCs, but WUXGA generally has better scaling and smaller black borders with MiSTer.

See chapter 20 for aspect ratio and scaling examples of WUXGA vs. 1080p.

Three of the best WUXGA displays are:

  • Eizo 2456 Flexscan
  • Asus ProArt PA248CRV
  • Asus ProArt PA248QV

Read my reviews.

Picture adjustments for all three can be found at the end of this guide.

Eizo 2456 (Black) WUXGA 16:10 display for MiSTer

Eizo 2456 FlexScan display

III. Pixel repetition

More is sometimes less when it comes to matching a display to the MiSTer.

1440p and 4K resolutions exceed the MiSTer's maximum horizontal resolution of 2,048 pixels.

To get a picture you'll need to lower resolution/pixel clock, and enable pixel repetition.

This results in blur and, since the 16:9 aspect ratio is inferior to WUXGA's 16:10, larger black borders.

IV. Display pivoting

Many arcade games require the display to be pivoted 90 degrees in either direction.

Some displays can't pivot at all, some need tools, some can only pivot in one direction.

Not all cores support image flipping, so you'll need a display that can pivot in both directions.

Display pivoting example
V. Vertical refresh rate

Your display should work with a wide range of vertical refresh rates.

Check the tech specs for e.g. "Digital Signal Frequency: 48~75 Hz (V)."

If your display doesn't support at least 49 to 61 Hz, you'll risk synchronization issues.

A few cores, like the WonderSwan, go above 75 Hz. They run in compatibility mode on ≤75 Hz displays.

Chapter 11 - HDMI and DisplayPort cables

I. HDMI and DisplayPort cables | II. CEC blocker
I. HDMI and DisplayPort cables

The MiSTer's maximum resolution is 2048 x 1536 pixels or a pixel clock of 210 MHz.

A High Speed HDMI 1.4 cable works with all computer monitors without VRR.

You'll need a HDMI 2.1 cable to support HDMI Forum VRR, ARC or ALLM. A HDMI 2.1 cable is the go-to choice for most TVs and monitors.

The MiSTer doesn'have a voltage buffer on the HDMI output, so avoid hot-swapping HDMI cables.

If your display supports FreeSync or VESA Adaptive-Sync, you'll need a USB-powered HDMI to DisplayPort cable to enable VRR. See chapter 19 section XIV for more about VRR.

I've had mixed luck with DisplayPort, since the bridge chips in the cables seem prone to fry with the MiSTer.

Delock USB-powered HDMI to DisplayPort

Delock USB-powered HDMI to DisplayPort

II. CEC blocker

I recommend buying a Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) blocker to put on one end of your HDMI cable.

It's a small adapter that blocks faulty control signals sent from the MiSTer, by disconnecting pin 13.

Without a blocker, connected CEC capable displays and receivers might miscommunicate.

Lindy CEC-less adapter

CEC-less HDMI adapter

Mr. RePlay

Now on to the basic installation!

Chapter 12 - MiSTer installation and navigation

I. Step-by-step installation | II. MiSTer navigation and control
I. Step-by-step installation

During setup, the background is static noise. The image may look compressed and blurry. Don't worry, all will be addressed later.

If you can't wait, see chapter 18 section II + chapter 19 section VI, and follow the instructions. Then come back here.

II. MiSTer navigation and control

Use a wired USB keyboard for navigation. Here are the most important shortcuts:

F12 Show / hide the menu
Esc Go back in the menu
Return / Enter Select
/ Navigate options
/ Switch subpages (in certain menus)
F1 Cycle through menu wallpapers
F2 Hide /show core dates
F9 Go to Linux terminal (F12 to return)
F11 Pair Bluetooth device
Alt+F12 Core select menu shortcut
Win+PrtScrn Save scaled screenshot
Shift+Win+PrtScrn Save raw screenshot

Chapter 13 - Update All script

I. Update All installation | II. Update All settings
I. Update All installation

theypsilon's Update All script can collectively update your MiSTer's firmware, OS, cores, scripts, and arcade ROMs.

If you have a prebuilt MiSTer, Update All may already be installed on your card.

It takes about 15 minutes the first time. If your MiSTer doesn't connect to the Internet immediately, try a few times.

Afterward, to avoid mismatching updates, you should never run the regular Update script again, only Update All.

II. Update All settings
1 Main Distribution Settings Enabled. Main MiSTer cores from MiSTer-devel
2 JT Cores for MiSTer Enabled. Cores made by Jotego Team (jtpremium)
3 Coin-Op Collection Enabled. Cores by Coin-Op Org
4 Other Cores LLAP, Unofficials, Y/C Builds...
5 Tools & Scripts Names TXT, Arcade Organizer, Scripts...
6 Extra Content ROMs, BIOS & Wallpapers
7 Analogue Pocket Firmware Update & Backups
8 Patrons Menu Taito Spinner, Themes, etc... [yyyy.mm.dd]
9 System Options _

Select SAVE from the menu, then EXIT and RUN UPDATE ALL.

Use Update All regularly, e.g. once a week or once a month at least.

Chapter 14 - Other scripts

I. wizzo extension scripts | II. One-time scripts
I. wizzo extension scripts

bgm plays background music on your MiSTer.

Download C64 chiptunes and a boot sound from the Vault.

Place music and the boot sound in the folder /media/fat/music/ and restart the MiSTer.

favorites is an essential script for creating shortcuts to your favorite arcade games and other cores.

You can also rename favorites, largely negating the need for Names.txt mentioned in chapter 13, section II, point 5.

II. One-time scripts

fast_USB_polling_on activates a 1 kHz refresh rate for USB ports.

This is important for reducing USB controller latency.

timezone adjusts your time zone.

rtc goes online to set the time and date of the optional Real Time Clock module.

Chapter 15 - Remote file transfer to your MiSTer

I. FileZilla step-by-step guide | II. Router troubleshooting
I. FileZilla step-by-step guide

FileZilla is a beginner-friendly way of transferring files and games from your computer to your MiSTer.

You can now drag & drop files from your computer to your MiSTer.

Be careful you don't overwrite existing folders by mistake.


FileZilla - the free FTP solution

II. Router troubleshooting

If you suddenly find that you can't connect, it's most likely because your Internet router has dynamically assigned a new IP address to your MiSTer.

Simply note your MiSTer's new IP address (see step 3 in the FileZilla step-by-step guide) and replace it in FileZilla.

Fix this permanently by having your router assign a static IP address to your MiSTer, based on its MAC address.

Your MiSTer's MAC address was created randomly during installation, and can be found in /media/fat/linux/u-boot.txt

To view this file, first exit to the Linux terminal from the MiSTer main menu by pressing F9.

Then log in:

Login: root
Password: 1

After the /root# prompt, type the following and press return/enter:

cat /media/fat/linux/u-boot.txt

Your MiSTer's MAC address is unique, but an example output could be:

ethaddr: 06:F2:FD:F0:EC:68

Chapter 16 - Sight and sound

I. Wallpaper | II. Volume levels
I. Wallpaper
  • 1. Find a wallpaper with the right dimensions, e.g. 1920 x 1200 pixels for WUXGA.
  • 2. Rename your wallpaper either menu.jpg or menu.png, depending on the image format.
  • 3. Transfer your wallpaper into the root folder of your MiSTer's file system: /media/fat/
  • 4. In the MiSTer menu, hold down F1 to cycle through wallpapers until your image shows up.

The screen might still appear compressed and blurry. This will be addressed in chapter 19.

You can download my wallpaper below by right-clicking on the image:

Waneella MiSTer wallpaper 1920 x 1200 pixels

198x © Waneella (1920 x 1200)

II. Volume levels

There's a global volume level for the machine, and a subsidiary volume level for each core.

Go to Misc. Options and Global Volume.

Set it one notch below maximum to avoid overdriving the input on PC speakers.

When you're in the main menu, Core Volume sets the level for the boot sound and background music.

Elsewhere, Core Volume adjusts the volume level of the individual core.

Chapter 17 - Controller setup

I. Global controller definitions | II. Core controller definitions
I. Global controller definitions

Configure your controllers in the MiSTer System Settings menu under Define joystick buttons.

This needs to be done per controller since it's based on each controller's unique ID.

Skip functions your controller doesn't have or you don't wish to use.

The definitions are automatically applied to all cores, however some cores need individual remapping, as explained in section II.

II. Core controller definitions

Open a core, navigate right for the System menu, select Define [Core] buttons and define buttons for the core's specific needs.

These are often actions such as shoot, jump, special, insert coin, and start game.

Core definitions overrule global definitions. Unchanged buttons still rely on global definitions.

Remember to save your settings.

Arcade controller layout example

Arcade core controller layout example

Mr. RePlay

Now you get to tweak your MiSTer!

Chapter 18 - INI file editing

I. INI file installation | II. Built-in INI editing | III. Remote INI editing
I. INI file installation

The INI file, or more precisly the MiSTer.ini file, is the global configuration file.

Intially, here's only a sample file named MiSTer_example.ini in the root directory.

You can have several INI files to accommodate different setups. Each must have a unique name. Switching between configurations requires a reboot.

II. Built-in INI editing

The MiSTer has a built-in INI editor.

Here's a quick guide to using the built-in INI editor:

III. Remote INI editing

Instead of using the built-in INI editor, you can use Visual Studio Code (VSC) on your computer to remotely edit the INI.

Visual Studio Code remote MiSTer INI editing

The INI in Visual Studio Code

Quick guide to remote editing:

Save changes in VSC to prompt FileZilla to overwrite the INI on your MiSTer.

You can also install an SFTP extension in VSC, bypassing the need for FileZilla when editing.

Chapter 19 - INI configuration

I. Intro | II. Vertical scaling mode | III. Mouse throttling | IV. Font | V. DVI mode | VI. Video mode | VII. Video info | VIII. Vsync adjust | IX. Refresh min/max | X. Video mode for NTSC / PAL | XI. MiSTer logo | XII. Custom aspect ratio | XIII. HDMI game mode | XIV. VRR | XV. Preset default | XVI. Core exceptions
I. Intro

Most functions are structured like this:

function_name=value ; explanatory comment.

You must adhere to the syntax, including the exact spelling, underscores, spacing or lack of spacing. Remove the semicolon in front of any currently deactivated line in order to activate it.

VSC highlights incorrect formatting through the use of colors.

Most things can remain unchanged, but some things you need to consider:

II. Vertical scaling mode

vscale_mode=1 ; 0 - scale to fit the screen height.

Set mode 1 (integer) to upscale the image in whole numbers, typically up to 5x with WUXGA and 4x with 1080p.

Integer scaling is preferable because it avoids irregular pixels and uneven scanlines. See chapter 20 for examples of integer vs fractional/stretched scaling.

III. Mouse throttling

mouse_throttle=10 ; 1-100 mouse speed divider. Useful for very sensitive mice

Mouse throttling is disengaged unless you remove the preceding semicolon.

The higher the value, the less sensitive the mouse becomes.

IV. Font


Replace the menu's font by changing font/myfont.pf to e.g. font/Arcade_Namco_Classic.pf or font/Computer_C64.pf

See the complete MiSTer Fonts list and scroll down for font previews.

V. DVI mode


If you've got external speakers connected directly to your MiSTer, set DVI mode to 1 to mute sound over HDMI.

VI. Video mode


Insert the above calculated video mode for WUXGA @ 60 Hz.

MiSTer generally prefers 60 Hz as the base frequency, due to variable pixel clock. However, in section X we'll set up additional video modes for PAL and NTSC.

If you've got a 1080p display, use the following preset video mode for 1080p @ 60 Hz instead:


VII. Video info


Displays the resolution and refresh rate of the core and the display, for up to 10 seconds.

When vsync adjust is set to 2, video info will be slightly incorrect due to the continuous nature of this mode.

VIII. Vsync adjust
vsync_adjust= 2 1 0
Smooth graphics Almost -
Original vsync -
Original pixel clock - -
Frame delay <1 (min. 0.25 ms) 2 (~32 ms) 2 (~32 ms)
Framebuffer ≤1 Single Triple Triple
Compatibility High Very high All


With vsync adjust set to 2, the MiSTer continuously synchronizes the display to the core's original pixel clock and vertical refresh rate.

If you experience screen tearing, dropouts, or screen blanking with your display, then try lowering vsync adjust to 1 for the problematic core. More on core exceptions in this chapter, section XVI.

IX. Refresh min/max


Set the minimum and maximum refresh values based on your display's official tech specs. See chapter 10 section V.

If you experience screen tearing, dropouts, or screen blanking with your display, try limiting min to 50 or max to 60 for the problematic core. More on core exceptions in this chapter, section XVI.

X. Video mode NTSC / PAL


Insert the above calculated video modes for NTSC and PAL modes on a WUXGA display.

Some cores offer a choice between PAL and NTSC. Others, such as AmigaVision, automatically switch to the relevant format depending on the loaded game.

If you've got a 1080p display, use the following preset video modes instead:


XI. MiSTer logo


Removes the MiSTer logo overlay on the menu wallpaper.

XII. Custom aspect ratio


Allows you to switch between to up two custom aspect ratios of your own choosing.

XIII. HDMI game mode


Tells Auto Low Latency Mode (ALLM) capable TVs and audio receivers to switch to ALLM by turning off unnecessary image and audio processing.

Requires HDMI 2.1 cables.



VRR is intended to reduce frame rate inconsistencies, but ironically it can both reduce and increase lag as well, depending on how your display reacts.

VRR may also disable important overdrive / trace free options on your monitor.

If your display doesn't have VRR or you simply wish to avoid VRR, set it to 0.

Ignore auto detection (mode 1) and force mode 2 for Freesync / VESA Adaptive-Sync or mode 3 for HDMI Forum VRR. See chapter 11 section I for cable requirements and a word of warning.

Set the minimum and maximum VRR framerates as explained in section IX:


VESA VRR framerate is based on your video mode base frequency, typically 60 Hz regardless of PAL / NTSC. See section VI.


XV. Preset default

preset_default=Mr RePlay/01_Default_Crt

Video processing allows you to apply a range of filters for a more authentic and historically accurate look. Video processing doesn't affect latency.

Download the Mr. RePlay video processing presets from the Vault, unpack, and place the folder in /media/fat/Presets/

The presets are now selectable from any core's video processing menu as well:

01_Default_CRT Aperture grille, adaptive scanlines, and vibrant gamma for most cores
02_Darker_1943 Same, but dark pure gamma for overly bright, washed out cores (1943, etc.)
03_Lighter_RoboCop Same, but poly gamma and bright scanlines for murky cores (RoboCop, etc.)
04_Commodore_1084 Commodore 1084 Philips monitor for Amiga / C64 / C128 / VIC-20
05_PC_VGA_Monitor Late 1980s PC monitor for use with the AO486 core

For the Commodore monitor preset to work, you'll also need to download the accompanying Commodore 1084 Philips [Mr RePlay].txt shadow mask from the Vault and place it in the root of /media/fat/Shadow_Masks/. See chapter 21 section VII.

The preset is an amalgamation of the ten Commodore 1084, 1084S, 1084S-D1, and CM8833-II monitors I've got. On average two 1084s die on me a year, and they're harder and harder to find, so emulating the look in MiSTer was important to me.

Commodore 1084 monitor

Commodore 1084 monitor with Philips CRT from 1987

XVI. Core exceptions

Anything written in a core exception will only affect the targeted core. All exceptions must be placed at the end of your INI file.

The syntax for a core exception is:

; Note the core name
function_name=value ; explanatory comment.

The setname is the internal name for the core. Open the core, go to System, select About, and note the exact spelling of the setname.

You can affect all arcade cores by using [arcade], only vertical arcades with [arcade_vertical], or the main menu with [Menu] as the setname.

You can affect multiple, but specific, cores with the same exception(s) by adding to the setname brackets. You must follow this syntax and observe correct linebreaks:

; Core names or collection
function_name=value ; explanatory comment.

Here are some examples of core exceptions:

; The Simpsons arcade
custom_aspect_ratio_1=10:7 ; PAR adjust

; Sega System 16B (2023-07-08 service release)
refresh_max=60 ; Screen tearing fix

; AmigaVision (WUXGA)
;vsync_adjust=1 ; Uncomment with dropouts or for demos
custom_aspect_ratio_1=40:27 ; PAR adjust
bootscreen=0 ; Disable Minimig boot screen

Mr. RePlay

Now you'll learn how to get authentic looking graphics on a modern display!

Chapter 20 - Scaling and aspect ratios

I. How integer scaling works | II. Alternatives to integer scaling | III. Vertical shooter example | IV. Horizontal beat 'em up example | V. Pixel aspect ratio
I. How integer scaling works

MiSTer upscales the resolution of the original core to match the resolution of the modern display.

Integer scaling is based on the vertical resolution, and is performed in whole numbers, rather than in fractions or by stretching the image to the edges.

Since retro games were typically made for an aspect ratio of 4:3, the compromise is pillarboxing on modern widescreen displays. Read more on display differences in chapter 10.

The formula looks like this:

Screen's vertical resolution Game's vertical resolution
= Scaling factor

A higher scaling factor means better use of the screen estate, as well as sharper video processing, such as scanlines and shadow masks.

II. Alternatives to integer scaling

Fractional scaling:

  • +Smaller borders
  • -Uneven pixels and pattern
  • -Shimmering artifacts

Stretched scaling:

  • +No borders
  • -Distorted aspect ratio
  • -Uneven pixels and pattern
  • -Shimmering artifacts
III. Vertical shooter example

Tiger-Heli from 1985 has a resolution of 285 horizontal x 240 vertical pixels. The display is then pivoted -90° for vertical play.

Tiger Heli's vertical resolution scales perfectly on a WUXGA (1920 x 1200) display: 1200/240 = 5, resulting in 5x vertical scaling.

With 1080p, 1080/240 results in 4.5, which rounds down to 4x scaling. This results in a smaller image and larger black borders.

Try for yourself:

IV. Horizontal beat 'em up example

Alien vs. Predator from 1994 has a resolution of 384 x 224 pixels.

To maintain pixel aspect ratio it's fractionally scaled horizontally, while maintaining integer vertical scaling.

The vertical resolution of 224 pixels (1200/224 = 5.357) rounds down to 5x vertical scaling on a WUXGA display.

On a 1080p display, 1080/224 = 4.82 rounds down to 4x vertical scaling.

Try for yourself:

V. Pixel aspect ratio

The pixel aspect ratio (PAR) is how square or rectangular each pixel looks.

NTSC pixels are taller than they're wide, while PAL pixels are wider than they're tall. In general, pixels should appear fairly square.

Many games have correct PAR by default and will scale correctly with integer vertical scaling. However, some still have an elongated or narrow look, as shown in picture A:

Wonder Boy MAME cab

A. Incorrect, narrow PAR (DIY MAME cabinet)

Wonder Boy arcade cabinet

B. Slightly overstretched PAR (CRT in Electrocoin cabinet)

During installation of an arcade machine, the operator would activate the built in geometry test grid. He would then adjust the horizontal size knob on the CRT until the individual cells in the grid appeared square.

Failing to use the test grid would sometimes lead to slight overstretching, as shown on the CRT in the Electrocoin Midi cabinet in picture B.

Wonder Boy arcade original output

Wonder Boy raw output (on WUXGA)

Wonder Boy arcade PAR adjusted

Wonder Boy PAR adjusted (on WUXGA)

Wonder Boy has an apparent source aspect ratio of 8:7 or 256 x 224 pixels.

When you take a screen dump of Wonder Boy's output you'll notice that it has 16 pixels of black border on each side.

When you subtract the borders you end up with an effective 224 x 224 resolution, which means a PAR of 4:3 will look better in order to correctly stretch the image horizontally.

You can switch between the unadjusted aspect ratio and up to two custom aspect ratios in the core's Video submenu under Aspect ratio.

The choice of PAR depends on the core's resolution and borders, your display type, and your personal aesthetic preferences.

If the core needs an aspect ratio that isn't available in one of the two existing custom aspect ratios (see chapter 19 section XII) then you can make a core exception instead.

Chapter 21 - Video processing

I. Video processing example | II. Display calibration | III. Horizontal filter | IV. Vertical filter | V. Scan filter | VI. Gamma correction | VII. Shadow mask
I. Video processing example

Video processing lets you enjoy a close approximation of the authentic CRT look on your modern display. Graphics were originally designed for this smoother and deeper look - not the flat, blocky look.

Below are close-up photos taken of an Eizo 2456 flatscreen monitor, showing Gods on the Amiga core.

Amiga Gods video processing OFF

Before video processing

Amiga Gods video processing ON

With MegaAGS preset on

Video processing can be set in three ways:

II. Display calibration

Before adjusting video processing, your display needs basic user calibration of brightness, contrast, color temperature, sharpness, and response time.

If you have one of the displays mentioned in chapter 10 section II, please go to the addendum, and come back here after calibration.

III. Horizontal filter

The horizontal filter sets the method used for interpolating or upscaling the original low resolution output to a modern display.

The choice of interpolation mainly determines how smooth or sharp the image looks.

Select Filters/Upscaling/Recommended/GS_Sharpness_60.txt or another value between 50 and 65.

A value of 50 will be quite blurry, 65 will be very crisp.

IV. Vertical filter

The vertical filter sets the scanlines, i.e. the light intensity of the horizontal lines in the image.

If it seems odd that the horizontal scanlines are performed by the vertical filter, it's because they're drawn from the top of the screen to the bottom, i.e. in a vertical motion, although they appear as horizontal lines.

Strictly speaking, the bright lines are emulated scanlines, while the dark lines are emulated gaps between the scanlines. In retro emulation lingo they're collectively referred to as scanlines.

Scanlines should always appear lengthwise on the display, which means the filters should remain unchanged with vertical shooters and when you pivot your display.

Only if you play on a non-rotated TV should you swap the horizontal and vertical filters for vertical cores.

On a computer monitor don't swap the horizontal and vertical filters for vertical shooters; instead, just pivot your display as shown below:

Horizontal scanlines remain the same

Scanlines appear lengthwise

Horizontal scanlines remain, only display is pivoted

Monitor is pivoted, scanlines are still lengthwise

Use adaptive scanlines for the most authentic look, where bright pixels blow-out the gaps, and dark pixels reveal the gaps.

Filters/Scanlines - Adaptive/SLA_Dk_80_Br_80.txt

The number after Dk (dark) represents the brightness of the gaps. The number after Br (bright) represents the brightness of the scanlines themselves.

SLA_Dk_50_Br_100 has the highest contrast between the dark and bright lines. This can create depth in games that lack contrast, but it will look overblown in already well-balanced games.

SLA_Dk_50_Br_50 is ideal only for very bright games, as it darkens the overall image, and it can work as an alternative to lowering the gamma curve.

SLA_Dk_80_Br_80 is a subtle, all-round choice, which works well for most games.

V. Scan filter

This filter method is a poor man's alternative to adaptive scanlines. It's ignored by MiSTer even when set, unless you also activate Scandoubler Fx in the core's Video submenu. See more in chapter 22 section I.

VI. Gamma correction

Gamma controls the light intensity curve, affecting the balance between dark, light, and mid-tones.

Gamma curves such as CRT Simulation and Poly Gamma affect color vibrancy and temperature as well.

For a punchy, color-saturated TV-look:

Gamma/CRT Simulation.txt

For a cooler, monitor look:


The Pure Gamma settings don't alter color curves in the same way, and are mainly useful for extreme overall darkening or brightening.

The Contrast Boost gamma settings can be excellent for separating sprites from the background in washed out games.

VII. Shadow mask

A shadow mask in a CRT blocks the electrons from hitting the wrong colored phosphors. In retro emulation lingo, a shadow mask can also refer to the aperture grille found specifically in Sony Trinitron CRTs.

While scanlines appear as horizontal lines, the shadow mask appears as a finely divided grid or mesh.

Applying a shadow mask in MiSTer texturizes pixels and creates depth, similar to the look on a CRT.

Sony Trinitron (1968) shadow mask

Sony Trinitron (1968)

Magenta Green Stripe shadow mask

MG Stripe (Magenta Green)

Commodore 1084S Philips shadow mask

Commodore 1084 Philips [Mr RePlay]

The Sony Trinitron aperture grille was invented in 1968 and was produced up until 2004. Its rendition by TrashUncle is bundled with MiSTer and works well for most arcade games and consoles:

Shadow_Masks/Sony Trinitron (1968).txt

The bundled MG Stripe (Magenta Green) is one of the more subtle choices:

Shadow_Masks/MG Stripe (Magenta Green).txt

For the Commodore 64 and Amiga I recommend the Mr. RePlay Commodore 1084 Philips monitor shadow mask:

Shadow_Masks/Commodore 1084 Philips [Mr RePlay].txt

Download the shadow mask from the Vault and place it in the root of the /media/fat/Shadow_Masks/ folder.

The shadow mask is intended to be used as part of the complete Mr. RePlay Commodore video processing preset 04_Commodore_1084, as referenced in chapter 19 section XV.

Mr. RePlay

Use this checklist the first time you open a new arcade core!

Chapter 22 - Arcade core setup checklist

I. Scandoubler Fx | II. Aspect ratio | III. Rotate screen / Orientation | IV. Flip screen | V. Video processing | VI. Autosave high scores | VII. Define [Core] buttons | VIII. Compatibility check

This checklist can be used for all arcade cores. Some sections are relevant to home computer and console cores as well.

I. Scandoubler Fx

Not relevant with modern displays, so make sure it's turned all the way off. For CRTs it can be used for doubling the scanning frequency and adding effects. Instead, see chapter 21 section V on how to apply video processing with modern displays.

II. Aspect ratio

Check that the pixel aspect ratio appears proportional. If not, see chapter 20 section V and chapter 19 section XVI.

III. Rotate screen / Orientation

Check that the game is oriented correctly on the screen, then pivot the display if necessary.

Rotation or orientation can be changed either in the core's menu under Orientation or in the Video submenu under Rotate Screen.

This is applicable to most vertical shooters, such as 1942, Galaga, etc.

IV. Flip screen

Some games can be flipped, either on the horizontal or vertical axis.

Originally this mode was used for cocktail cabinets, where the screen was set down in a piece of furniture with a glass plate over it (for drinks), and two players took turns playing.

1980s arcade cocktail mode

1980s amusement arcade with cocktail cabinets

With a modern display this feature can be used to control which direction you want to pivot your display.

Flipping is typically found either in the core's main menu or under DIP Switches. Any changes to the DIP switches require you to select Reset to apply.

A few cores don't have DIP switches available in the menu, so search online for how to activate the core's hidden service menu during core startup.

V. Video processing

If you've set a standard preset for post-processing in the INI file, e.g. the Mr. RePlay 01_Default_CRT preset, you can check if the lighter or darker version of the preset suits the game better, or you can make your own settings from scratch.

VI. Autosave high scores

A few games can save high scores to the microSD card. This requires activation in the core's menu.

High scores are only saved on the microSD card upon opening the core's menu. Remember to do this before exiting the game!

VII. Define [Core] buttons

As mentioned in chapter 17 section II, most games require you to set up the controller's buttons per core.

When you're done tweaking all the settings, remember to save them!

VIII. Compatibility check

Check that the game plays without dropouts or screen tearing. If not, see chapter 19 section VIII, IX, and XVI.

Mr. RePlay

The following couple of chapters are dedicated to unique systems

Chapter 23 - Setting up the Commodore 64

I. Video processing | II. SID chip versions | III. SID filter curves | IV. Installing C64 games | V. Loading a program directly | VI. Loading from a disk image | VII. Loading a specific program from a disk image | VIII. Loading a tricky disk | IX. Loading a specific program from a tricky disk | X. Keyboard tips | XI. Original C64 joysticks
I. Video processing

A Commodore monitor-look can be obtained by using the Mr. RePlay Commodore 1084 Philips monitor video procesing preset 04_Commodore_1084. See chapter 19 section XV.

If you prefer a more straightforward look, try the AmigaVision MegaAGS preset, which works well with the Commodore 64, too. See chapter 24.

C64 Mr. RePlay Commodore 1084 Philips preset

04_Commodore_1084 preset (photo)

C64 MegaAGS preset

MegaAGS preset (photo)

II. SID chip versions

The C64's sound chip, the SID, comes in two versions: the original 6581 SID and the later 8580 SID.

Generally speaking the 6581 works with all games, most classic chiptunes, and with sample playback in games.

The 8580 is a common choice for modern chiptunes and demos, due to its predictable filter, but it's underfiltered when used for most classic chiptunes.

You can switch between SID versions in the C64 core, but I recommend the 6581 for all-round use.

III. SID filter curves

The original 6581 SID filter varies greatly between production batches, so no two C64s sounds identical.

Contrary to popular belief this has little to do with the revision number itself (6581 R2, R3, R4, R4 AR), but rather with the filter and capacitor production tolerances.

See my website Ultimate SID Collection for more technical and historical information.

6581 SID chip filter sweep - fixed capacitor

6581 filter sweep - Sweet spot

6581 SID chip filter sweep - old capacitor

6581 filter sweep - Muffled

The following custom SID chip filter curve (by Antti S. Lankila, converted by yxkalle) hits the sweetspot and works with the greatest variety of games and chiptunes.

Here's how to install and enable it:

When a custom filter is loaded, there's no difference between custom options Custom 1, 2, and 3. Selecting Default switches back to the built-in filter curve.

Remember to save the core settings before exiting the core.

IV. Installing C64 games

It's not difficult to find C64 games on the web, but for your convenience there's a link to a preservation archive in the Vault.

It features a curated and verified collection of retro games, primarily from 1982-1993, alongside recent public domain games and remakes.

Once downloaded to your computer, transfer the game subfolders into /media/fat/games/C64/ on your MiSTer.

Commercial games from around 2017 and newer, such as Sam's Journey, Steel Ranger, A Pig Quest, Knight 'n' Grail, Zeta Wing II, and Planet Golf, aren't included and can be purchased from their respective developers.

V. Loading a program directly

While browsing game folders in the menu, you can jump to any starting letter by pressing the relevant character on your keyboard.

By default the C64 core comes with the speedloader DolphinDOS activated for fast loading and shortcuts for disk operations.

Here's how to load a program directly from a game folder:

VI. Loading from a disk image

If the game folder appears empty, you need to mount the game as a disk image instead:

VII. Loading a specific file from a disk image

If there are multiple programs on the same disk, here's how to load a specific program:

VIII. Loading a tricky disk

If you get an error when trying to run the program or the disk loader stalls, you'll need to disable the DolphinDOS fastloader ROM and try a different method:

IX. Loading a specific program from a tricky disk

Repeat the steps 1 through 3 from section VIII, then:

Having changed the System ROM, simply reload the C64 core to reactivate the DolphinDOS fastloader.

X. Keyboard tips

When loading manually from the C64 startup screen:

  • " is placed on Shift+2
  • $ is placed on Shift+4
  • * is placed on Shift+8
  • : is placed on ;

The layout may vary if you have a localized PC keyboard or a Mac keyboard.

The Spacebar is often used for skipping intros or manuals, occasionally so is the C64's RUN/STOP key.

The latter is mapped to the Esc key on a modern keyboard.

Some games, such as Barbarian, don't show how to start or select the number of players. These options are often placed on the function keys from F1 to F7.

In-game, the function keys, the Return key, and especially the Spacebar are often used for special attacks, crawling / standing, or other important functions.

P, Q, Esc or the Spacebar are often used to pause an active game.

A few games use the C= (CBM) key, e.g. Ikari Warriors for toggling the shooting direction lock. The CBM key is typically placed on the lower left Alt key on a modern keyboard.

XI. Original C64 joysticks

See chapter 6 section II on how to use your original C64 joysticks with the MiSTer.

There's a Swap Joysticks option in the core menu which works with both USB joysticks and adapters.

If an original joystick doesn't seem to work at first, try simply unplugging and re-inserting the joystick HDMI adapter cable.

The best ambidextrous original joysticks for the C64 and Amiga are:

  • The Arcade by Suzo
  • Zip Stik Super Pro
  • Kempston Competition Pro
  • Powerplay Cruiser
  • Cheetah The Bug
  • Dan-Joy

Chapter 24 - Setting up AmigaVision

I. Advantages of AmigaVision | II. Installing AmigaVision | III. Core exceptions | IV. Core checklist | V. Using the AmigaVision menu | VI. Saving user data | VII. Backing up user data and updating AmigaVision | VIII. Running demos | IX. Potential naming confusion
AmigaVision MegaAGS menu

AmigaVision MegAGS games selector

I. Advantages of AmigaVision

AmigaVision (formerly known as MegaAGS) is a must-have add-on for the MiSTer's Amiga core, MiniMig.

AmigaVision adds the following handy features to the Amiga core:

II. Installing AmigaVision

Install AmigaVision in three steps:

III. Core exceptions

AmigaVision needs a core exception to look and work correctly. Inputting core exceptions in the MiSTer's INI file are explained in chapter 19 section XVI.

I've included two core exceptions. Firstly, AmigaVision's own recommendation for 1080p displays:

; AmigaVision (1080p)
video_mode_ntsc=8 ; 1080p60
video_mode_pal=9 ; 1080p50
vscale_mode=0 ; Full screen, up to 5x integer scaling with dynamic cropping
vsync_adjust=1 ; Set to 2 if your display can handle it
custom_aspect_ratio1=40:27 ; PAR adjust
bootscreen=0 ; Disable Minimig boot screen

Secondly, my AmigaVision core exception recommendation for WUXGA (1920 x 1200) displays:

; AmigaVision (WUXGA)
;vsync_adjust=1 ; Uncomment if get dropouts or want to run demos
custom_aspect_ratio_1=40:27 ; PAR adjust
bootscreen=0 ; Disable Minimig boot screen

The above core exception predicates that you've already correctly set up your MiSTer's video mode, vertical scaling mode, and vsync adjust for WUXGA in your INI, as detailed in chapter 19.

Due to rapid resolution switching, the Amiga may require a core exception vsync adjust value of 1, or even 0, with many demos, and a few games.

IV. Core checklist

Open the AmigaVision Amiga core, then

V. Using the AmigaVision menu

Use the keyboard or a controller / joystick to navigate the menu.

Add a game to AmigaVision Favorites by pressing the Tab key.

Remove an existing favorite by navigating to the game inside the Favorites folder and pressing Tab again.

Press the Delete key to exit a running game and return to the AmigaVision menu.

In the event of a malfunction or a blank screen in the AmigaVision menu, reload the core from the core menu or reset the MiSTer. This will lose any unsaved data.

VI. Saving user data

You can save data in games or other Amiga software to a virtual hard disk in AmigaVision.

However, you must exit the game or software properly by returning to the AmigaVision menu first, in order to actually store the data on your microSD card.

Exit a game properly by pressing the Delete key, returning you to the AmigaVision menu. Only then should you exit the core or turn off your MiSTer.

Failing to exit a game properly to the AmigaVision menu will lose any recently saved data to the virtual hard disk!

VII. Backing up user data and updating AmigaVision

AmigaVision isn't updated by the Update All script. Instead you repeat this chapter's section II, using the latest AmigaVision version.

Before doing so, make a backup to your computer of your AmigaVision user data. This contains your saved games and menu favorites.

All is stored in the file /media/fat/games/Amiga/MegaAGS-Saves.hdf on your MiSTer.

Once you've updated the AmigaVision files, transfer back your safety copy of MegaAGS-Saves.hdf to your MiSTer, replacing the newly updated, but empty, MegaAGS-Saves.hdf file.

If you update or overwrite /media/fat/games/Amiga/MegaAGS-Saves.hdf without taking a backup first, any saved AmigaVision data is lost!

VIII. Running demos

Most demos can run on the regular AmigaVision Amiga setup from the core selector, but otherwise use the separate Amiga 500 setup.

See the section III warning about the vsync adjust core exception for Amiga demos and some games.

IX. Potential naming confusion

Before you installed AmigaVision, there was already a core named MiniMig on the MiSTer. This is the actual Amiga core and is an .rbf file.

When you install AmigaVision, two or more (depending on whether you installed MegaAGS Extras) new Amiga options are created in the menu with names such as Amiga, Amiga 500, etc. Normally, you should just use Amiga.

These new options from AmigaVision are .mgl files, which are configuration files that use the original MiniMig core.

As shown in chapter 13 section II, Update All lets you enable Names TXT in 5 Tools & Scripts. If this is enabled, MiniMig will be renamed Amiga in the menu.

When there are multiple options named Amiga in the core selector, AmigaVision's are the ones without a date.

Press F2 to toggle core dates on and off to confirm which is which.

More technical information can be found here: https://amiga.vision/docs, but all the essentials are covered in this guide.

Chapter 25 - Setting up AO486 (PC)

I. Installing flynnsbit's Top 300 DOS Games Pack | II. Scripts | III. AO486 settings | IV. Top 300 DOS Games Pack settings
DOOM (1993) running on MiSTer FPGA AO486 core

Yes, it runs DOOM (1993)

I. Installing flynnsbit's Top 300 DOS Games Pack

flynnsbit's 'MiSTer AO486 Top 300 DOS Games Pack (Total DOS Launcher Release)' contains two virtual hard disks: A bootable one with DOS and one with 300 classic games.

The ADDOS folder contains the famous After Dark screensaver, which can be transferred as well or ignored.

The Manuals folder contains PDF scans of the games manual, which can be saved on your Mac or PC for future reference.

II. Scripts

You'll need to run flynnsbit's eXoDOS Top 300 Game Pack Updater script, since this pack isn't updated by theypsilon's Update All script.

The updater script and instructions can be found here: https://github.com/flynnsbit/Top300_updates

CIFS share warning: Read flynnsbit's script warning on network shared disks before using the updater script, as it might corrupt your virtual hard disk.

It'll also change the DOS menu from Total DOS Launcher to MyMenu. Once you've completed section III in this guide, press the F1 key to read the help menu.

Turbo presets may be disabled in MyMenu. To enable them again press Alt+U in MyMenu, select MYMENU CONFIG, uncomment the first three turbo options in the MyMenu INI file, save, and exit.

Use F3 to change the turbo speed before loading a game, although it may be overruled by individual game settings.

Finally, Seth Gregory has made a script that switches the boot rom for the AO486. The script and instructions can be found here: https://github.com/sethgregory/ao486_boot_switcher

Alternatively, you can simply make a backup of the boot1.rom file, rename the Trident rom file as boot1.rom, and restart. Then reverse the procedure when you want to go back to the normal rom.

III. AO486 settings

The AO486 core menu exceptionally requires you to hold down Win+F12 to access it. You can still use the menu button you assigned on your joystick as well.

Your keyboard and mouse will work without further ado.

IV. Top 300 DOS Games Pack settings

If prompted, select 1. HIRAM for most games. A few exceptions will let you know to use a different type of RAM upon startup.

Press Ctrl+Alt+Delete to reset, select the right type of RAM, and load the game again.

A few games require the alternative Trident boot rom. There's a script for this procedure, as shown in section II.

Mr. RePlay

Congratulations, you made it to the end - here's the addendum!


I. Asus ProArt PA248CRV calibration | II. Asus ProArt PA248QV calibration | III. Eizo FlexScan 2456 calibration
I. Asus ProArt PA248CRV (WUXGA 1920 x 1200) display calibration
Option Setting
Preset User 1
Brightness 100
Contrast 90
Saturation 50
Hue 50
Color Temp 5500K
RGB Tuning 50 / 50 / 50
Black Level 50
Sharpness 0
Trace Free 20
Aspect Control Dot to Dot
Input Range Auto
Blue Light Filter Min
Media Sync Off or On (for On, use the DisplayPort and enable VRR on your MiSTer)
II. Asus ProArt PA248QV (WUXGA 1920 x 1200) display calibration
Option Setting
Preset User Mode 1
Blue Light Filter Min
Brightness 100
Contrast 90
Saturation 50
Hue 50
Color Temp 5500K
Gamma 2.2
Black Level 50
Sharpness 0
Trace Free 40
Aspect Control Full
Input Range Auto
Vivid Pixel 0
Adaptive Sync Off or On (for On, use the DisplayPort and enable VRR on your MiSTer)
III. Eizo FlexScan 2456 (WUXGA 1920 x 1200) display calibration
Option Setting
Preset User1
Auto EcoView Off
EcoView Optimizer 2 Off
Brightness 100%
Picture Expansion Aspect Ratio
Sharpness 0
Input Range Auto
Color Mode User1
Brightness 100
Contrast 85
Temperature 5000 K
Gamma 2.2
Hue 0
Saturation 5
Gain (R) 100
Gain (G) 96
Gain (B) 80